Handbook of Theoretical
and Computational Nanotechnology

Handbook of
and Their Applications
in Nanobiotechnology



Quantum Dots
and Nanowires

Synthesis, Functionalization
and Surface Treatment
of Nanoparticles

Nanoclusters and Nanocrystals

Handbook of
Hybrid Materials
and Nanocomposites





Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Hari Singh Nalwa
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
American Scientific Publishers
26650 The Old Road, Suite 208
Valencia, California 91381-0751, USA

Pulickel M. Ajayan, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
Sivaram Arepalli, NASA Johnson Space Center, USA
Yoshio Bando, National Institute for Materials Science, JAPAN
Ray Baughman, University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Marie-Isabelle Baraton, University of Limoges, FRANCE
François Béguin, Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, FRANCE
Flemming Besenbacher, University of Aarhus, DENMARK
Gan-Moog Chow, National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE
Herbert Gleiter, Institute of Nanotechnology, GERMANY
Wolfram Heimbrodt, Philipps University Marburg, GERMANY
Jeff T. M. De Hosson, University of Groningen, NETHERLANDS
Akihisa Inoue, Tohoku University, JAPAN
Jean-Marie Lehn*, University of Louis Pasteur, FRANCE
Reghu Menon, Indian Institute of Science, INDIA
M. Meyyappan, NASA Ames Research Center, USA
Paolo Milani, University of Milano, ITALY
Koichi Niihara, Osaka University, JAPAN
R. E. Palmer, University of Birmingham, UK
Stephen J. Pearton, University of Florida, USA
Ron Reifenberger, Purdue University, USA
A.M. Rao, Clemson University, USA
C. N. R. Rao, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, INDIA
Mark A. Reed, Yale University, USA
Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer, Universität Stuttgart, GERMANY
Helmut Schmidt, Institut für Neue Materialien, GERMANY
Nadrian C. Seeman, New York University, USA
Richard W. Siegel, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
Susan B. Sinnott, University of Florida, USA
Richard E. Smalley*, Rice University, USA
Clivia M. Sotomayor Torres, University of Wuppertal, GERMANY
Deepak Srivastava, NASA Ames Research Center, USA
Kang L. Wang, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, CHINA
Zhong Lin Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
Christiane Ziegler, University of Kaiserslautern, GERMANY

*Nobel Prize Laureate


ABOUT THE EDITOR (Dr. Hari Singh Nalwa)
"People are in awe of the quality and quantity of the book series Dr. Nalwa have produced. It's quite amazing and a real service to the scientific community."
Professor Stephen Pearton, University of Florida, USA

Dr. Hari Singh Nalwa is the President/CEO of American Scientific Publishers (USA) which he founded in 2000. He played a critical role in promoting and defining the field of nanotechnology and is one of the world’s leading experts in the field. He is distinguished as a scientist, academician, entrepreneur, businessman and prolific author/editor after two decades of vigorous work. He received the “Top 100 Scientists” Award in 2008 from IBC Cambridge, England. He has been cited in the "Who’s Who in Science and Engineering", "Who’s Who in America", "Who’s Who in the World", "Dictionary of International Biography"and "2000 Outstanding Intellectuals of the 21st Century with an Order of Excellence.

Dr. Nalwa is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (, Advanced Science Letters ( and Journal of Scientific Conference Proceedings ( He is well known throughout scientific community for his monumental work on "Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology" (Vols.1-5, Academic Press, 1999) which received the Award of Excellence from the Association of American Publishers. After the publication of this multivolume handbook, he started the most ambitious publication project of the Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in summer 2000 to bring the first encyclopedia in the field of nanotechnology. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (10-Voume set) edited by Hari Singh Nalwa received “2005 Best Reference Work Award” from the American Society for Engineering Education (USA) and was selected as the “2005 Outstanding Academic Title” by the CHOICE magazine from the American Library Association (USA).

Dr. Nalwa was the Head of Department and R&D Manager at Ciba Specialty Chemical Corporation in USA and a staff scientist at the Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd. Japan (1990-1999). While working at Hitachi Ltd., he was also concurrently an Honorary Visiting Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology in New Delhi. He was the founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines published by John Wiley (1997-2000). He has also been on the Editorial Board of several international journals as well a referee for many journals. Dr. Nalwa has authored over 150 scientific articles, 25 book chapters and 18 patents in the field of electronic and photonic materials and their based devices. Dr. Nalwa is one of the most experienced and internationally known editors who has edited/co-edited 107 books for the scientific community; Ferroelectric Polymers (Marcel Dekker, 1995), Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, 1997), Organic Electroluminescent Materials and Devices (Gordon & Breach, 1997), Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers, Vols. 1-4 (John Wiley & Sons, 1997), Handbook of Low and High Dielectric Constant Materials and Their Applications, Vols. 1-2 (Academic Press, 1999), Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Vols. 1-5 (Academic Press, 1999), Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices, Vols. 1-10 (Academic Press, 2000), Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, Vols. 1-4 (Gordon & Breach, 2001), Photodetectors and Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001), Silicon-Based Materials and Devices, Vols. 1-2 (Academic Press, 2001), Supramolecular Photosensitive and Electroactive Materials (Academic Press, 2001), Handbook of Thin Films Materials, Vols. 1-5 (Academic Press, 2001), Handbook of Surfaces and Interfaces of Materials, Vols. 1-5 (Academic Press, 2001), Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 73 (Academic Press, 2001), Advances in Surface Science, Vol. 38 (Academic Press, 2001), Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology (Academic Press, 2001), Handbook of Polyelectrolytes and Their Applications, Vols. 1-3 (American Scientific Publishers, 2002), Handbook of Luminescence, Display Materials and Devices, Vols. 1-3 (American Scientific Publishers, 2003), Handbook of Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vols. 1-4 (American Scientific Publishers, 2003), Handbook of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials and Nanocomposites, Vols. 1-2 (American Scientific Publishers, 2003), Magnetic Nanostructures (American Scientific Publishers, 2002), Quantum Dots and Nanowires (American Scientific Publishers, 2003), Nanoclusters and Nanocrystals (American Scientific Publishers, 2003), Polymer Optical Fibers (American Scientific Publishers, 2004), Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vols. 1-10 (American Scientific Publishers, 2004), Handbook of Nanostructured Biomaterials and Their Applications in Nanobiotechnology, Vols. 1-2 (American Scientific Publishers, 2005), Polymeric Nanostructures and Their Applications, Vols. 1-2 (American Scientific Publishers, 2007), Handbook of Organic Electronics and Photonics, Vols. 1-3 (American Scientific Publishers, 2008), Bottom-up Nanofabrication: Supramolecules, Self-Assembly and Organized Films, Vols. 1-6 (American Scientific Publishers, 2008), Cancer Nanotechnology (American Scientific Publishers, 2008), Nanotoxicology (American Scientific Publishers, 2007), Biochips Nanotechnology (American Scientific Publishers, 2008), Soft Nanomaterials, Vol. 1-2 (American Scientific Publishers, 2008), Handbook of Nanoceramics and Their Based Devices, Vol. 1-5 ((American Scientific Publishers, 2007), Nanomaterials for Energy Applications, (American Scientific Publishers, 2008)., Handbook of Electrochemical Nanotechnology, Vols. 1-2 (American Scientific Publishers, 2008) and Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vols. 11-20 (American Scientific Publishers, 2009)

Dr. Nalwa is a member of the American Chemical Society, American Physical Society, Materials Research Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has been awarded a number of prestigious fellowships including National Merit Scholarship, Indian Space Research Organization Fellowship, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Senior fellowship, NEC fellowship, and Japanese Government Science &Technology Agency Fellowship. Dr. Nalwa helped organize the First International Symposium on the Crystal Growth of Organic Materials (Tokyo,1989) and the Second International Symposium on Phthalocyanines (Edinburgh,1998) under the auspices of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He also proposed a the first conference on porphyrins and phthalocyanines to the scientific community that, in part, was intended to promote public awareness of the Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, which he founded in 1996 and remained the Editor-in-Chief until December 2000. As a member of the organizing committee, he helped effectuate the First International Conference on Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines, which was held in Dijon, France in 2000. He was on the organizing committee of the BioMEMS and Smart Nanostructures, (December 17 –19, 2001, Adelaide, Australia).

Dr. Nalwa received a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in biosciences from the Meerut University in 1974, a Master of Science.(M.Sc.) degree in Organic Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology at Roorkee (formerly University of Roorkee) in 1977, and a Ph.D. degree in Polymer Science from the Indian Institute of Technology in New Delhi in 1983. His thesis research focused on the electrical properties of macromolecules. Since then, his research activities and professional career have been devoted to studies of electronic and photonic organic and polymeric materials. His endeavors include molecular design, chemical synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structure-property relationships, and evaluation of novel high performance materials for electronic and photonic applications. He was a Guest Scientist at Hann-Meitner Institute in West Berlin, Germany (1983-1984) and Research Associate at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles and State University of New York at Buffalo. In 1988, he moved to the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in Japan as a lecturer (1988 –1990), where he taught and conducted research on electronic and photonic materials. His research experience include ferroelectric polymers, electrically conducting polymers, polymer electrets, nonlinear optical materials for integrated optics, electroluminescent materials, low and high dielectric constant materials for microelectronics packaging, organic semiconductors, nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials, Langmuir-Blodgett films, high-temperature resistant polymer composites, epoxy-based photopolymers, rapid modeling and stereolithography.


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